Parents and pupils have a right of access to school records providing they attend a state maintained school. You do not have an absolute right to your records where your child attends an academy, it then depends on the nature of the contract between the family and the school.
The Data Protection Act gives all school students, regardless of age, the right of access to their school pupil records. Detailed Guidance is available here
The Data protection Act says:
In addition to the right to be given a copy of the educational record, students are entitled to be given a description of the personal data which makes up the record, together with details of the purposes for which the data are processed, the sources of the data (if known) and the individuals or organisations to which the data may have been disclosed.
A period of up to 15 school days are allowed in which to respond to a subject access request. (The equivalent period for other types of record is up to 40 days).
If asked to provide a hard copy of the record, a fee may be charged according to the number of pages.
Parents rights in addition to the subject access right which can be exercised by pupils or by parents acting on behalf of pupils, parents have their own independent right of access to the official educational records of their children under the separate education regulations. In essence the information to which parents are entitled and the exemptions are the same as for pupils although there is no parental right of access to information which does not form part of the official record.
Requests to see or receive copies of the educational records of their children should be made in writing to head teachers. If asked to supply a hard copy of the record, a fee covering the cost of supplying the information, may be charged.
A template of a letter to the school here (word docx)
Additionally other records may be obtained by right from either the LEA or the Social Services should either of these agencies become involved.